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The Anti-Chinese riots of 1931

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Wanpaoshan used to be a small village located north of Changchun, Manchuria. The town was marshy and alongside Itung river. Japanese Empire had at the time taken power over Koreans. Some Koreans decided to lease a large piece of land from a Chinese broker with the intention of irrigation practices. In preparation for the irrigation, they dug a ditch some kilometers along but extended from the Itung River to a piece of land that was exclusive of what they had leased and was at the time occupied by the local Chinese farmers. On seeing this, local Chinese farmers protested by reporting the activity to the Wanpaoshan local authorities. At this time, a considerable length of the ditch had already been dug which called for action to be taken. Police were dispatched, and the Koreans were ordered to terminate the project and leave the area immediately. On the other hand, the Imperial Japanese Consul from Changchun also sent Japanese consular police for the Koreans protection. The collision between the Japanese and Chinese authorities based in the city called for an agreement point that the matter needed joint investigation.

 

Wanpaoshan Incident- Joint investigation needed time to lunch and complete and the Chinese farmers got impatient. Four hundred local Chinese farmers who were whose lands were cut by the ditch decided to take matters in their own hands, armed with pikes and agricultural tools. Their main aim was to drive the Koreans away however they also filled the most substantial part of the ditch. As the incident took place, Japanese consular police tried to disperse the group while protecting the Koreans farmers by firing rifles. Luckily, no casualties were recorded, and Chinese farmers withdrew. Japanese police had to guard the project until the Koreans farmers were able to finalize on digging the ditch and dam along the Itung River.

 

Anti-Chinese riots in Korea incident- the incident happened in Pyongyang, Korea as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident. Anti-Chinese riots were severe as opposed to the Wanpaoshan Incident and even had to be published in both Japanese and Korean newspapers. The riots started at Incheon on July 3 and spread all over Korea cities. Chinese authorities claimed that one hundred and forty-six lives were lost, five hundred and forty-six wounded and properties of great value destroyed with July 5 as a day that worst rioting happened in Pyongyang. The Chinese authorities also lamented that the authorities in Japanese did not take precautions to protect Chinese lives and properties and also failed to prohibit the publishing of inflammatory accounts. In defense, Japanese authorities claimed that the riots were random outbursts that were settled as soon as they could and also gave compensation to the families that were bereaved.

 

Anti-Korean sentiment in China incident- in response to the Anti-Chinese riots, riots by Chinese against Koreans erupted in China. The hatred and ethnicity among Koreans and Chinese grew dramatically. According to an article published by the New York Times, in Jilin alone, ten thousand Koreans were brutally killed by the Chinese ethnic groups. Several Korean houses were also burnt down and looted in the province. In Supingkai, anti-Korean riot claimed three hundred lives. May 1931, Chinese boycotted Japanese-made products as a way of resistance.

 

Results- the situation was worse and called for Japanese and Chinese authorities to come up with ways to resolve the situation. On the one hand, Chinese felt that Koreans broke the law by leasing land outside of Gando District according to Gando Convention. On the other hand, maintained that since Koreans were Japanese subjects, they had the right to lease land all over South Manchuria and that the Koreans were in good faith apart from the Chinese broker. Koreans farmers remained.

The History Of The Joseon Dynasty

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The Joseon Dynasty

The Joseon dynasty, also known as the Yi Dynasty, was the last of its kind in Korean history. It is also the longest-serving dynasty in Korea, having lived on for over five centuries. The dynasty was formed by Yi Song-gye. Its capital was located at Hanyang, presently known as Seoul. The Kingdom drew its name from the state that had established authority over the Korean peninsula in the past.

The Joseon Dynasty

Yi was close to the bordering Ming dynasty in China. As a result, Ming considered Joseon as a client to his kingdom. Due to the high indolence of Chinese culture at the time, Joseon borrowed its governance model form Neo-Confucianism.

The first change implemented by the Yi dynasty was the redistribution of land parcels which was previously controlled by a chosen few in the leadership. The kingdom was also supportive of scholarship, with the most remarkable achievement on this front being the introduction of the Korean alphabet, known as Hangul.  Later on, Yi introduced a bureaucratic system of administration.

Jan attacked Korea in 1592. Despite assistance from Chinese forces, the Japanese prevailed over the Koreans. This caused the loss of several valuable assets as well as the weakening of the kingship. The country, however, had fully recovered from the effects of the invasion by the beginning of the 20th century.

Korea isolated from international relations until very late into the 19th century. In 1876, the country signed the Treaty of Ganghwa after insistent pressure from Japan. The Joseon dynasty ended in 1910 after Japan seized Korea.

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Ewha Womans University

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History

Ewha is a school in Seoul Korea that holds a lot of history behind its name. A determined woman named Mary F. Scranton founded the university in 1886. The school was designed for woman seeking higher education. As of today, the University still operates and functions effectively providing students a host of essential courses. Although, the school is in Korea, it provides courses to many different ethnic backgrounds and services students from more than 70 countries.

Statistics

Ewha features graduate and undergraduate courses and today it has more than fifteen thousand students that are currently enrolled. One hundred and seven-two thousand who successfully graduated and achieved a Bachelor’s degree. More than forty-eight thousand who have received their master’s degree and over four thousand who have received a Doctorate degree.

Housing Dorms

This enormous school has a host of housing dorms that is quite useful for students that attend. EWHA offers students on campus dorming and off campus dorming options. Today, more than four thousand students currently occupy the dorming facilities. The students are matched with dorms pertaining to the courses of study. Furthermore, the school provides the students a variety of accommodations while in the dorm, such as recreation, cultural programs and essential academic programs.

Most of the rooms are completely furnished where others just include the basic materials, such as desks and beds. Prices typically start at three hundred and fifty thousand, but are well worth the payment for the quality and professionalism the school offers. Moreover, there are scholarship programs available through the school to assist students with financial hardship. Students are provided hot/cold meals twice a day with access to refrigerator, microwaves and many useful accessories.

Academic Affairs

This department consists of professional administrators who are there to help students along the way. They typically handle calendar scheduling, arranging school events, directing academic courses and student reviews on performance of grades and day-to-day management with administration and faculty concerns.

Registration Process

Non-English registers interested will adhere to an application process and will then be required to write a brief essay. Once this process is complete, the registrar will then be notified for a thorough interview. Furthermore, students will then be notified whether they fit the criteria to attend. In addition, students may be required to provide identity credentials, such as a passport, English language certification etc.; Unqualified registrars are usually notified by mail if they are not selected to attend EWHA.

Visitors

To get an idea and hands on experience of the University there are a host of tours that are available usually from Monday through Saturday and other guided tours are available from Monday through Friday. Visitors will have the opportunity to learn and visit all the nearby amenities and attractions offered. The touring process is open to anyone that has interest in EWHA and what they have to offer. However, they must receive full consent from the school before partaking in touring with EWHA.

Nobuyuki Abe

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Who is Nobuyuki Abe?

Nobuyuki Abe lived between November 24, 1875, and September 7, 1953. Known to some as Nobuyuki Abe, he held a post as a Japanese Prime Minister from August 30, 1939, to January 16, 1940. Nobuyuki Abe also happened to be the Korean Governor-General and the General in the Imperial Army of Japan.

Abe’s Birth and Educational Background

Abe’s birth took place in the ex-samurai lineage in a city called Kanazawa, a Japanese City found in Ishikawa Prefecture on Honshu Island. Kanazawa is the central city of the Prefecture. The Samurai dynasty, also known as the “bushi” comprised of the Japanese warriors. They were considered a military class of great importance. This was before the transformation of the Japanese society that took place in 1868. “Samurai” is a word depicted from the Japanese verb samurai with the meaning “to serve” (someone).

Abe schooled at Tokyo No.1 Middle School, popularly known as the Tokyo Metropolitan Hibiya High School. After that, he attended No.4 High School. At the school level, Abe served in the military service as a volunteer. This was the era of the war between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Dynasty (First Sino-Japanese War).

The Empire of Japan eventually conquered the war. The signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki was initiated in 1895. This was the same time that Abe’s graduation from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy took place. He was a student in the 19th class of the Army War College.

Abe’s Career in Military

commons.wikimedia.org

In 1918, Abe was appointed the commander of the Third Field Artillery Regiment. In August that same year, Abe’s regiment was referred to Siberia at the time of Japan’s Siberian Intervention, though was never included in combat. The Siberian Intervention took place from 1918 to 1922. It was a portion of the significant plan by Japan and the western powers. They intended to back up the White Russians to pursue the Bolshevik Red Army at the time of the Russian Civil War. By 1920, the Allied Forces withdrew, though the Imperial Japanese Army remained in Siberia until 1922. The European warriors then entered the Russian Maritime Provinces.

On December 22, 1930, Abe was crowned to serve as the commander of the Fourth Infantry Division. Later on, he was appointed to instruct in the Army War College succeeded by the chief of the Military Affairs Bureau and then the Army’s Vice Minister. Abe got a promotion to full general in 1933. He served as the Commander-in-Chief of the Taiwan Army. Eventually, Abe was put on the reserve list in 1963.

His political Background

The Nobuyuki Abe Cabinet on its inaugural day. commons.wikimedia.org

On August 30, 1939, Abe Nobuyuki was appointed the 36th Prime Minister. However, Mitsumasa Yonai substituted him in January 1940. Abe decided to link up with the House of Peers. He made this decision in the year 1942. After that, he was granted the post of the tenth Korean Governor-General for 2 consecutive years, 1944, and 1945. This period was associated with the Second World War – the time when there was the global war that involved fighting in most sections of the world and many countries.

Abe’s Arrest and Release

When this World War II ceased, the Americans arrested Abe. This plan was initiated during the reign of General Douglas MacArthur- an American General who exercised his powers in the First World War, Second World War, and the Korean War. Abe Nobuyuki was not guilty of a crime related to war. He was later released.

Three Notable Korea-Japan Peace Treaties

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1) The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876

Relationships existed between the nations now called Japan and Korea since the 3rd century BC, yet the first peace treaty between the countries was not struck until 1876. Most often referred to as the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876, each nation gave it a different name: the Japanese call it the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity, while Koreans know it as The Treaty of Ganghwa Island, the site of many battles against invaders.

Why the need for treaties when both nations had co-existed since the 3rd Century? Because the growing influence of neighboring China loomed large over the Korean peninsula, and while Korea helped fill China’s treasury in return for protection from outsiders, citizens were forced to give up their independence in the bargain.

As time passed, Koreans grew restless. They needed protection but wanted to escape China’s iron grip. To do so, government officials aligned themselves with Japan against the interlopers. The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876 was negotiated and signed to boost trade and form a partnership for both safety and economic gain.

2) The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905

Like the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876, this 1905 accord, signed on November 17th, is known by several different names, though the one that stands out most is the Eulsa Unwilling Treaty. Also known as the Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty or simply the Eulsa Treaty, it was named for the month in which it was signed.

This pact “deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty,” eliminating gains the two nations had made over the 29 years since the 1876 accord was negotiated, according to “The Japan Times.” Once the 1905 treaty was signed, says Russian writer Andrei Lankov, Koreans were stripped of home rule privileges under terms negotiated by peacekeepers after Japan won the Russo-Japanese War.

Since Korea had become a Japan protectorate, the nation was forced to live under military rule. Even the royal palace was surrounded by manned armaments day and night. Korea’s King Gojong refused to sign the Treaty of 1905, standing his ground despite pressure (hence the word “Unwilling” in the Korean version of the document). He turned that decision over to his top officials.

Japan identified five dignitaries willing to sign. They were richly rewarded by the Japanese, but having compromised their integrity for favors, from that day forward, they became known as “the five Eulsa criminals.” November 17th is still commemorated as The Day of National Disgrace in Korea.

3) The Treaty on Basic Relations Between Japan and the Republic of Korea

By the time negotiators from Japan and Korea sat down to sign The Treaty on Basic Relations, Korea was no longer a single kingdom. Following World War II, the nation was divided into the countries of North Korea and South Korea in 1945, and between 1950 and 1953, the Korean War was waged between the two territories.

To begin the process of shaping the Treaty on Basic Relations, Japan and South Korea declared every accord previously signed between the nations to be “null and void.” Drafted in three languages—-Japanese, Korean and English—-negotiations leading to this treaty were so arduous, it took 14 years to bring the document to the signing table on June 22, 1965.

Students of Korean history continue to debate the merits of this accord to this day. Yoo Euy-sang, Northeast Asian History Foundation Ambassador-at-large, became so fascinated with the treaty, he authored a book about it in 2016, calling it a puzzle and insisting that the Treaty on Basic Relations “should be re-estimated,” despite the passage of 53 years.

The Joseon Dynasty

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In 1910, Japan formally claimed Korea as its own, marking the end of Korea’s long-lived Joseon dynasty. The dynasty, which began in 1392, was lead by Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, who, in what is now Seoul, established the capital of Hanyang.

Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, also known as King Taejo, maintained relations with Korea’s Chinese neighbors, the Ming dynasty. This heavily influenced the Peninsula as King Taejo followed the model of the Chinese bureaucracy as well as allow neo-Confucianism to take hold throughout ancient Korea.

Throughout Korea’s past, the land had simply belonged to high-ranking bureaucrats, but with the installation and rise of the Joseon dynasty, the land began to be redistributed, and with it came the rise of a new aristocracy, the yangban. The yangban were scholar-officials and throughout the early years of the Joseon dynasty scholarship bloomed, even bringing about the Korean phonetic alphabet, Hangul, in 1443.

Unfortunately, this peace and prosperity would be short-lived as Japan began to invade and war against the Korean peninsula in 1592. Though their Chinese allies managed to repel the Japanese troops, the damage had already been done. This damage was only multiplied in 1627 as invaders from the Machu tribes of Manchuria, in preparation for an invasion of China, ransacked Korea’s Northwest border in an attempt to protect their rear. These back to back invasions, with little time to recover, left the Joseon central government severely weakened. It would take nearly a century for the dynasty to recover.

With the reigns of King Taejo’s descendants, King Yŏngjo and King Chŏngjo, much of what the invasions had stolen were now being recovered. Agriculture became prosperous, as irrigation became more widespread and Korea’s monetary economy was on the upswing. Though there were many administrative problems within the government, the Joseon dynasty managed to instill a new school of practical learning or Silhak in order to remedy these problems.

As many of their counterparts did, Korea practiced a policy of isolationism until the 1880s, where, in 1876 Japan urged them to sign the treaty of Kanghwa which declared Korea an independent state and ultimately lead them to form diplomatic relationships with Japan and their ancient ally China. As they began to open up to the outside world, Korea became the center of competition between the world powers and was ultimately influenced by Japan, who had claimed victory over China and Russia in Sino-Japanese war and Russo-Japanese war respectively.

Korea harbored disdain towards their Japanese overseers and in 1895 Japanese officials assassinated Korea’s Queen Min, a person suspected of inciting the resistance. This left her husband King Kojong as ruler until he was forced to cede the throne to his son in 1907, who ruled until the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910, marking the fall of the Joseon dynasty for good.

Founded through the strength and courage of Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, the Joseon dynasty ruled and prospered Korea for over 500 years and became Korea’s longest-lived dynasties. They survived wars and instilled Korea’s phonetic alphabet, and instilled new schools of learning in their time of rule and they truly are Korea’s greatest dynasty.

Gender inequality in the history of South Korea

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The traditional South Korean society had their women as subordinates who did not have formal education at all. The roles of the women to stay at homes as good mothers and homemakers. The primary duties were to ensure there was harmony in the family by avoiding any conflict. Additional, after a woman was married, she was supposed to move and stay with the husband at the husband’s home. While at the husband’s place, she was expected to take care of the whole family as well as the parents-in-law. The traditional Korean society preferred male child to a girl. A woman who did not bore a male child was not worthy in the society. Women in the traditional Korean society did not have a voice and were not allowed to participate in any activity in the community as men. The society expected them to give support to their husband.

Feminism, women rights movement

Feminism or women rights movement originated and has its history from South Korea. Article 11 of the national constitution in 1948 talked about the women suffrage in South Korea. According to the constitution, the law recognizes citizen as equal, and no discrimination shall be there in social, Political, economic and cultural life. The law states the no person should be discriminated against based on the sex, social status or religion. The South Korean women rights or feminism movement is pretty recent as compared to the Western World’s first and second wave of feminism. Industrialization and globalization have brought so many changes that have been implemented in the economy and workplaces in so many places and so has been the case in South Korea. The rapid economic growth through globalization has seen the role of men and women changing in the South Korean society. With the introduction of capitalism and democracy, women started working in public places as well as participating in political events. In 1948, according to the constitution, the women suffrage became legal, and thus they started gaining opportunities to continue to higher education including colleges and universities.

Amidst all the advancement taking place in the world and South Korea, women discrimination existed behind the scene. Even though the social perspective does not externally exclude women from taking part in economic activities, low wage, poor working environments compared to male workers, there is a lot of sexual harassment taking place at workplaces which is seen to discourage women. Besides, people do not discuss such cases openly as they feel they are not essential matters as compared to others.

Minjung Undong or mass people’s movement of South Korea

There were many women’s rights groups established even before the Second World War in South Korea. However, these groups did not solely discuss the issues that were affecting women until the mid-1980s. The current feminist movement in South Korea has its history traced back to the mass people’s movement of South Korea or Minjung Undong. The attention of women rights increased as minjung movement developed. Minjung movement decided to focus on the rights of women after women labor was exploited within factories in South Korea. Women’s movement gained more momentum in the mid-1980s after women got involved in student and labor movements as there were a lot of reforms taking place in South Korea by this time.

Current feminism activities in South Korea

Presently, there are two kinds of women movements in South Korea, reformist and radical. The reformist female movement focuses on changing the role of women in the society. They use such methods as drafting legislation, lobbying, as well as influencing decision makers. The group supports the government of South Korea. The radical movement concentrates on general human rights issues. The group tackles problems such as the torture of prisoners and the reunification with North Korea.

Emperor Showa

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The 124th Emperor of Japan, Emperor Hirohito reigned from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. Born Michinomiya Hirohito on April 29, 1901, Emperor Hirohito was only 15 years old when he was crowned a prince. He was the first crown prince to travel abroad to study in Europe. When he returned to Japan in 1921, Crown Prince Hirohito was named regent when his father, Emperor Taisho, became chronically ill in 1921. He then became the acting ruler of Japan because his father’s health was failing.

 

As regent, Crown Prince Hirohito automatically became the new emperor upon his father’s death. Emperor Hirohito was his official name while serving as emperor of Japan. As with tradition, Emperor Hirohito was renamed after his death. The name Emperor Showa was given because it was the name of the era of Emperor Hirohito’s reign. Showa was a name Emperor Hirohito had chosen for the time he reigned which can be roughly translated to mean “enlightened harmony”.

 

Emperor Showa married Princess Nagako in January 26, 1924. Princess Nagako was a distant cousin of Emperor Showa which was the tradition. They had seven children together, two boys and five girls. Their oldest son, Akihito, was eventually crowned a prince. Later, Crown Prince Akihiot broke a 1,500 year tradition of marrying within the family by marrying a commoner.

 

Emperor Hirohito, or Emperor Showa, ruled Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War which led into World War 2 (WW2). He was considered a controversial leader during this time period. Japan was already considered one of the great powers when Emperor Showa, started his reign. It was one of only four permanent members of the League of Nations and was recognized as the ninth largest economy in the world. Following WWII, many leaders were prosecuted for war crimes. Emperor Showa was not prosecuted and his involvement remains controversial still today.

 

Under his reign, Emperor Showa became the commander-in-chief of the Japanese armed forces. He was also considered the highest spiritual authority as emperor. Instead of being charged with war crimes, MacArthur made a deal with Emperor Showa to implement a new Japanese constitution. This agreement also required the denouncement of the practice of imperial divinity.

 

Following the end of WWII, the United States continued to occupy Japan until 1952. During this occupation, the United States worked to transform Japan so that the sovereignty would lay with the people through a constitutional monarchy instead of the emperor. When the American occupation withdrew, Japan experienced a rapid economic growth period which Emperor Showa reigned over. The 64 year reign of Emperor Showa was the longest imperial reign in the history of Japan.

 

On January 7, 1989, Emperor Showa died of cancer of the small intestine at the Aoyama Palace in Tokyo. His funeral was an international event attended by such leaders as the President of the United States George H. W. Bush and the French President Francois Mitterrand. He was buried in the Imperial Mausoleum in Hachioji. He was succeeded by his son Akihito. Emperor Showa had remained an active figure in Japan up until his death.

1948- Women Gain Their Rights

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After decades of occupation and dictatorship Korea attempted to become a democracy in 1948. A traditionally male-dominant society due to their adherence to the male-dominated religion of Confucianism, the 1948 Constitution guaranteed all citizens equal treatment under the law and that religion, gender and social status no longer could legally provide a barrier to personal and political rights.

As is often the case it took some time for these legal decrees to actually become practiced in the law and indeed there is still a gender equality gap in South Korean society.

The religious influence of Confucianism led to a strictly patriarchal society. Women were expected to maintain and stay in the home and defer to the man of the house on all things. Their rights to own property, even as an inheritance from their husband, were severely limited. The Constitution, through its various forms since 1948, has always guaranteed women the legal right to leave the home, vote and hold positions in business and cultural institutions. Though women have had these rights for decades they have not been put into practice and often the courts reflected the patriarchal attitude as opposed to the constitutional attitude. Women were not generally allowed “out of the house” until later, and this is reflected in their participation in government.

Between the adoption of this Constitution in 1948 and 2004 the percent of women in the South Korean National Assembly was less than three (2.9%), with only three years in that period (1973, 2000, 2004) seeing women elected to over five percent of parliamentary positions. 2004 was the highest percent of any year in that range at 13%, more than doubling the second highest year of 2000 at 5.9%

These low numbers persisted even though several administrations in South Korea pledged to do better. It was not until the election of Kim Jae-jung in 1998 that things truly began to turn around for women in South Korea.

Kim Jae-jung ran on an inclusive platform aimed specifically at women. His campaign was a success on some levels. 50% of voters in his election were women, the highest percentage at the time. He promised to appoint four women to Cabinet positions and to help get elected officials achieve being at least 30% women in parliament.

He also changed several policies and laws to become fairer to women and to reflect their equal standing with men under the nations Constitution. He also passed the Gender Discrimination Prevention and Relief Act in 1999 which resulted in the formation of the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, a government organization dedicated to increasing participation by women in all aspects of South Korean culture including politics.

In reality his policies fell short of his promises. Though many legal steps forward were taken in favor of women’s rights government participation fell short. The year Kim Jae-jung promised to have 30% of parliament was 2000, where the percent was only 5.9%.

There has been an increase in women’s participation in government since Kim Jae-jung’s tenure. In local and national elections more and more women enter the political arena by seeking office. They still make up a small percentage of elected of officials but they are exercising their freedoms and their rights by running for office and gaining ground against the patriarchal tendencies of their culture. Women overwhelmingly register for liberal parties, making up 70% of the Democratic Liberal Party in 1995 although general participation in organized parties is minimal.

It is notable that women in South Korea attained suffrage and equal rights under the law without violence. This method is atypical in history.

Christianity in Korea during Japanese colonization

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Today about 30% of the population in South Korea identify as Christian. This is substantially higher than many other Asian countries. Why did the Korean people take such a likening to the religion? The reasons can be found when looking at the influences of the country over the course of the last 100 years. Japans colonization, the Korean War, and western presence would culminate into the perfect environment for the religion to grow and expand.

American missionaries first arrived in Korea in the 1880s. Compared to other Asian countries, it was very well received. Korea would become a colony of Japan in 1910 and in 1914 it was estimated that there were approximately 150,000 Christians in Korea. During this time Japan did not have strict rules concerning Christianity which would change around World War 2. Christian missionaries were allowed to continue their work in Korea freely.

Prior to the arrival of Christianity Korea had its own practices. Korean Shamanism and Buddhism were common practice in the country until the arrival of Japan. When Japan colonized Korea, they outlawed Korean Shamanism and took over the Buddhist practices to enforce a pro-Japan agenda. This caused many people to gravitate towards Christianity upon its arrival as they were allowed to worship without the influence of propaganda. Christianity quickly became a rallying point to defy Japanese rule over their country. Many felt as though it was a way to rebel. In addition, it became part of a nationalist movement since it was un-influenced by the Japanese.

Another factor the emboldened the presence of Christianity was the Korean War in the early 1950’s. North and South Korean were clashing and South Korea was not as strong as it is today. The United States stepped in to provide support to the government and people of South Korea in an effort to preserve democracy. Because this was the first real western presence felt by the Korean people it garnered a lot of respect for the United States. They were there to assist people in need not to push an agenda they thought the country should adopt. Because of this respect, Christianity gained even more traction and was viewed in a more positive light than just a way to rebel.

Korean culture started to associate Christianity with the middle-class, intellectual superiority, and modernizers. After the release of Japan’s hold on the country and the end of the Korean war South Korea was formed. The country had a desire to modernize and the best example of this would be their allies in the recent war, the United States. These cultural association as well as an attempt to emulate the success the U.S. had was just another reason Christianity gained such popularity in Korea.

There was no one factor that gave Christianity such a strong presence in Korea but rather a perfect storm of multiple factors. Had the country never been colonized or if Japan had outlawed Christianity sooner it is possible one would see similar results as China or Japan.

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