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Assassination of Queen Min

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At a time when all the world’s eyes and ears are on peace talks with North Korea, it is interesting to note the Korean Queen Min’s assassination back in 1895 is still of interest and trending online. “Part of the reason why there is so much interest in Empress Myeongseong is this popular ‘Queen Min’ was killed by stabbing with a knife. The a new conspiracy theory today in 2018, good Queen Min was murdered by “a band of ruffians” said to be both Koreans and Japanese; while famed historian Clarence Norwood states in his book, “Hulbert’s History of Korea,” that the Queen’s assassin was believed to be linked “by the Japanese minister to Korea.”

Queen Min was a political power player

The detailed history of King Lojong and his wife, Lady Min or Queen Min, is very interesting in wake of current peace talks between North and South Korea and nearby Japan. While Japanese history states that there’s always been “cultural tensions between Korea and Japan,” the Japanese government has refused to confirm if, in fact, one of his government officials played a role in the infamous 1895 killing of Korea’s beloved queen. In fact, it is well-known in Korea’s national history that Queen Min was heart-broken after her own child, Wnja, passed away just after giving birth back in 1871. In response, the queen became “more political,” states Korean history texts “because Queen Min wanted to help King Kojong with his rule when it involved issues impacting Korean women and family members.”

Politically savvy Queen Min remembered

There are many fans of Queen Min in both North and South Korea today. For example, there are very exciting stories from that period in Korean national history that speaks of “corruption” and how a political upheaval, in the “Kapsin Year 1884” that resulted in the Royal Mins being removed from power until good Queen Min helped expose corruption in Seoul that the queen linked to Ch’ing China’s negative influence. This newly promoted history of Korea from the 19th century speculates that it may have been someone from China and not Japan who actually committed the stabbing of the queen. Still, the jury is out on who killed Queen Min because the government officials in China and Japan both are keeping mum, or quiet, about who may have assassinated this rising “Queen of the Korean People.”

Overall, there will continue to be theories about who killed Queen Min because “we live in a heated political time when leaders in China and Japan do not want to admit to anything that will upset their Korean allies who trade goods with them,” explained Korean historians in various college history texts of Asia in the 19th century. The consensus is Queen Min’s killer “may have been known to the queen and even the king,” while it is truly difficult today, some 123 years after Queen Min’s killing to known exactly who did the deed in a country where such violence is not soon forgotten.

Koiso Kuniaki

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Koiso Kuniaki is a Japanese legend who was born on April 1st, 1880 in Utsunomiya, Japan. He is remembered for serving Japan as its Prime minister and army General during the World War II. Koiso Kuniaki graduated as the top army graduate of his class in the army academy. He exited the army academy in 1900. He later proceeded to the Army War College to cement his military skills. At this time, Koiso Kuniaki served in one of the most active positions during the Russo-Japanese War.

Koiso worked very hard in all the positions he held. His passion for serving his country was evident right from the time he was in the war academy. He scaled up the ranks, and in 1930, Koiso received an appointment to become the Chief of Bureau of Military Affairs. He worked on this task for close to two years. During his time as the Chief of Bureau of Military Affairs, Kuniaki ensured that all military matters were taken seriously by both the government and the military body. He streamlined various military departments for efficiency.

Author=毎日新 / Source = 毎日新聞社編『明治・大正・昭和・平成歴代宰相 下巻』(毎日新聞社、2004年)

In the year 1932, Koiso Kuniaki was appointed to be the vice minister of war. As the vice minister for war in Japan, Koiso helped in strengthening the military position of his country. He ensured that all the soldiers and other military personnel received the necessary support from the government and the general public. He also enforced discipline and hard work among the military bodies.

Koiso Kuniaki was appointed as the commander of the 5th division. Koiso Kuniaki was also nominated to become the Chief of staff of Kantogun that was tasked with military operations in China. He became the Commander in 1935 and served for three years until 1938. His duty as the commander was to direct military operations in Korea. The government of Japan and Korea highly appreciated his work. Koiso was a real military tool.

At this time, Koiso Kuniaki had acquired extensive experience and expertise in military operations. He had grown into a resource. The whole department depended on his tactics and innovations. His skills could not be matched with anyone else in the entire region.

Koiso Kuniaki later became the minister of overseas affairs during the Hiranuma of 1939 and Yonai of 1940 cabinets. In the two assemblies, Koiso was considered as the best-suited person to guide and enlighten the country about the military affairs. He was among the most famous people in the cabinet.

共同通信 / Kyodo News

Koiso Kuniaki returned to Korea at the onset of the World War II and served as the governor-general of Korea. He performed his duties as the Governor-General with passion and love for the people. He utilized his extensive skills in leadership and governance that he had acquired in his previous positions.

Later, after the fall of the Tojo cabinet in the year 1944, Koiso received an appointment to be the Prime Minister. His appointment was aimed at tasking him with the duties of propelling the war effort. Koiso proved to be equal to the task when he started consolidating various military issues. He had a plan to make the army stronger than he found it.

The U.S military arrived in Okinawa in 1945. Following the landing of the U.S troops, Koiso chose to resign from the duties of the Prime Minister. The U.S army trailed him and captured him. He was then convicted of war crimes and received a life sentence. Koiso Kuniaki died on November 3rd, 1950 while serving a life sentence in Tokyo. It was suspected that prison conditions and aging accelerated his death. Koiso will remain to be remembered.

Nobuyuki Abe

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Who is Nobuyuki Abe?

Nobuyuki Abe lived between November 24, 1875, and September 7, 1953. Known to some as Nobuyuki Abe, he held a post as a Japanese Prime Minister from August 30, 1939, to January 16, 1940. Nobuyuki Abe also happened to be the Korean Governor-General and the General in the Imperial Army of Japan.

Abe’s Birth and Educational Background

Abe’s birth took place in the ex-samurai lineage in a city called Kanazawa, a Japanese City found in Ishikawa Prefecture on Honshu Island. Kanazawa is the central city of the Prefecture. The Samurai dynasty, also known as the “bushi” comprised of the Japanese warriors. They were considered a military class of great importance. This was before the transformation of the Japanese society that took place in 1868. “Samurai” is a word depicted from the Japanese verb samurai with the meaning “to serve” (someone).

Abe schooled at Tokyo No.1 Middle School, popularly known as the Tokyo Metropolitan Hibiya High School. After that, he attended No.4 High School. At the school level, Abe served in the military service as a volunteer. This was the era of the war between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Dynasty (First Sino-Japanese War).

The Empire of Japan eventually conquered the war. The signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki was initiated in 1895. This was the same time that Abe’s graduation from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy took place. He was a student in the 19th class of the Army War College.

Abe’s Career in Military

commons.wikimedia.org

In 1918, Abe was appointed the commander of the Third Field Artillery Regiment. In August that same year, Abe’s regiment was referred to Siberia at the time of Japan’s Siberian Intervention, though was never included in combat. The Siberian Intervention took place from 1918 to 1922. It was a portion of the significant plan by Japan and the western powers. They intended to back up the White Russians to pursue the Bolshevik Red Army at the time of the Russian Civil War. By 1920, the Allied Forces withdrew, though the Imperial Japanese Army remained in Siberia until 1922. The European warriors then entered the Russian Maritime Provinces.

On December 22, 1930, Abe was crowned to serve as the commander of the Fourth Infantry Division. Later on, he was appointed to instruct in the Army War College succeeded by the chief of the Military Affairs Bureau and then the Army’s Vice Minister. Abe got a promotion to full general in 1933. He served as the Commander-in-Chief of the Taiwan Army. Eventually, Abe was put on the reserve list in 1963.

His political Background

The Nobuyuki Abe Cabinet on its inaugural day. commons.wikimedia.org

On August 30, 1939, Abe Nobuyuki was appointed the 36th Prime Minister. However, Mitsumasa Yonai substituted him in January 1940. Abe decided to link up with the House of Peers. He made this decision in the year 1942. After that, he was granted the post of the tenth Korean Governor-General for 2 consecutive years, 1944, and 1945. This period was associated with the Second World War – the time when there was the global war that involved fighting in most sections of the world and many countries.

Abe’s Arrest and Release

When this World War II ceased, the Americans arrested Abe. This plan was initiated during the reign of General Douglas MacArthur- an American General who exercised his powers in the First World War, Second World War, and the Korean War. Abe Nobuyuki was not guilty of a crime related to war. He was later released.

The Joseon Dynasty

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In 1910, Japan formally claimed Korea as its own, marking the end of Korea’s long-lived Joseon dynasty. The dynasty, which began in 1392, was lead by Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, who, in what is now Seoul, established the capital of Hanyang.

Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, also known as King Taejo, maintained relations with Korea’s Chinese neighbors, the Ming dynasty. This heavily influenced the Peninsula as King Taejo followed the model of the Chinese bureaucracy as well as allow neo-Confucianism to take hold throughout ancient Korea.

Throughout Korea’s past, the land had simply belonged to high-ranking bureaucrats, but with the installation and rise of the Joseon dynasty, the land began to be redistributed, and with it came the rise of a new aristocracy, the yangban. The yangban were scholar-officials and throughout the early years of the Joseon dynasty scholarship bloomed, even bringing about the Korean phonetic alphabet, Hangul, in 1443.

Unfortunately, this peace and prosperity would be short-lived as Japan began to invade and war against the Korean peninsula in 1592. Though their Chinese allies managed to repel the Japanese troops, the damage had already been done. This damage was only multiplied in 1627 as invaders from the Machu tribes of Manchuria, in preparation for an invasion of China, ransacked Korea’s Northwest border in an attempt to protect their rear. These back to back invasions, with little time to recover, left the Joseon central government severely weakened. It would take nearly a century for the dynasty to recover.

With the reigns of King Taejo’s descendants, King Yŏngjo and King Chŏngjo, much of what the invasions had stolen were now being recovered. Agriculture became prosperous, as irrigation became more widespread and Korea’s monetary economy was on the upswing. Though there were many administrative problems within the government, the Joseon dynasty managed to instill a new school of practical learning or Silhak in order to remedy these problems.

As many of their counterparts did, Korea practiced a policy of isolationism until the 1880s, where, in 1876 Japan urged them to sign the treaty of Kanghwa which declared Korea an independent state and ultimately lead them to form diplomatic relationships with Japan and their ancient ally China. As they began to open up to the outside world, Korea became the center of competition between the world powers and was ultimately influenced by Japan, who had claimed victory over China and Russia in Sino-Japanese war and Russo-Japanese war respectively.

Korea harbored disdain towards their Japanese overseers and in 1895 Japanese officials assassinated Korea’s Queen Min, a person suspected of inciting the resistance. This left her husband King Kojong as ruler until he was forced to cede the throne to his son in 1907, who ruled until the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910, marking the fall of the Joseon dynasty for good.

Founded through the strength and courage of Gen. Yi Sŏng-gye, the Joseon dynasty ruled and prospered Korea for over 500 years and became Korea’s longest-lived dynasties. They survived wars and instilled Korea’s phonetic alphabet, and instilled new schools of learning in their time of rule and they truly are Korea’s greatest dynasty.

The Goryeo Dynasty

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The Goryeo Dynasty was the last in Korea shaped by Buddhist’s after the political influence of 1000 years. It was established during 918, the Later Three Kingdoms united it in 935 and the Joseon Dynasty replaced the Goryeo Dynasty in 1392. During the end of the ninth century the Three Kingdoms of Korea lost control over the local lords. Gyeon Hwon, Yang Gil, Gi Hwon and Gung Ye led the country through the rebellion and civil war. Hubaekje was established by Gyeon Hwon and Hugoguryeo by Gung Ye. They were the Later Three Kingdoms along with Silla. As a lord of Songak, Wang Geon joined Taebong, established Goryeo and overthrew Gung Ye in 918. In 935 Goryea annexed Silla and in 936 defeated Hubaekje. The first king of Goryeo was Wang Geon.

 

Gwangjong was the fourth king and made numerous laws to strengthen the central government including the 958 freeing of the slaves. Gyeongjong was the fifth king and Seongjong the sixth. The northern border was ravaged during the Goryeo-Khitan Wars between 933 and 1019. Goryeo’s central government was in complete authority when Munjong became the eleventh king. The importance of civilian leaderships was emphasized by the later kings over the military. In 933, 800,000 Khitan troops invaded the northwest border of Goryeo. The withdrawal of the Khitan ceded the territory east of the Yalu River and the alliance with Song China ended. Goryeo then built a fortress in the northern territories.

 

A coup was led by General Gang Jo in 1009 against King Mokjong. Military rule was established when the king was killed. The Khitan attacked again in 1010. Gang Jo died while blocking the Liao invasions. The Khitan attacked for the third time in 1018. General Gang Gamchan destroyed the dam when the Khitans were crossing and most of the army drowned. The entire Khitan army was annihilated by a massive attack led by General Gang.

 

The House of Yi married into the family of the seventeenth king and gained more power than the king. This led to a failed coup in 1126 by Yi Ja-gyeom. This weakened the monarchy and a civil war ensued among the nobility. The Goryeo nobility was divided in half when a move to Seogyeong was proposed by Myo Cheong in 1135. Myo Cheong could not persuade the king to move, rebelled, failed and was executed.

 

Yi Ui-bang and Jeong Jung-bu overthrew the crown in 1170. King Myeongjong took power and king Injong was exiled. General Kyong Taesung came to power in 1177 He attempted to purge corruption and restore the monarch’s power but died in 1184. He was succeeded by a cruel and corrupt Yi Ui-min. In 1197 he was assassinated by Choi Chungheon. The Choe house ruled for 61 years as military dictators. Goryeo was invaded in 1231 as part of the campaign to conquer China. Choe Chung-heon began fighting back in 1232 and in 1259 sued for peace. Gojong ordered the Tripitaka Koreana be recreated after the destruction of the invasion of 1232. This took fifteen years and the scriptures were housed in Haeinsa.

 

The dictator Choi was assassinated by Kim Jun in 1258 and the military dictatorship was over. A peace treaty was then established. King Gongmin lost interest in the state affairs after his wife died in 1365. The rule went to Sin Don for six years until a court official killed him. General Choe Yeong established an invasion campaign in 1388 and Goryeo fell in 1392. The Joseon Dynasty was then established. Buddhism declined due to corruption during the second half of Goryeo. This eventually led to the three teachings by the Korean Buddhist monks.

Three Notable Korea-Japan Peace Treaties

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1) The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876

Relationships existed between the nations now called Japan and Korea since the 3rd century BC, yet the first peace treaty between the countries was not struck until 1876. Most often referred to as the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876, each nation gave it a different name: the Japanese call it the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity, while Koreans know it as The Treaty of Ganghwa Island, the site of many battles against invaders.

Why the need for treaties when both nations had co-existed since the 3rd Century? Because the growing influence of neighboring China loomed large over the Korean peninsula, and while Korea helped fill China’s treasury in return for protection from outsiders, citizens were forced to give up their independence in the bargain.

As time passed, Koreans grew restless. They needed protection but wanted to escape China’s iron grip. To do so, government officials aligned themselves with Japan against the interlopers. The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876 was negotiated and signed to boost trade and form a partnership for both safety and economic gain.

2) The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905

Like the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876, this 1905 accord, signed on November 17th, is known by several different names, though the one that stands out most is the Eulsa Unwilling Treaty. Also known as the Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty or simply the Eulsa Treaty, it was named for the month in which it was signed.

This pact “deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty,” eliminating gains the two nations had made over the 29 years since the 1876 accord was negotiated, according to “The Japan Times.” Once the 1905 treaty was signed, says Russian writer Andrei Lankov, Koreans were stripped of home rule privileges under terms negotiated by peacekeepers after Japan won the Russo-Japanese War.

Since Korea had become a Japan protectorate, the nation was forced to live under military rule. Even the royal palace was surrounded by manned armaments day and night. Korea’s King Gojong refused to sign the Treaty of 1905, standing his ground despite pressure (hence the word “Unwilling” in the Korean version of the document). He turned that decision over to his top officials.

Japan identified five dignitaries willing to sign. They were richly rewarded by the Japanese, but having compromised their integrity for favors, from that day forward, they became known as “the five Eulsa criminals.” November 17th is still commemorated as The Day of National Disgrace in Korea.

3) The Treaty on Basic Relations Between Japan and the Republic of Korea

By the time negotiators from Japan and Korea sat down to sign The Treaty on Basic Relations, Korea was no longer a single kingdom. Following World War II, the nation was divided into the countries of North Korea and South Korea in 1945, and between 1950 and 1953, the Korean War was waged between the two territories.

To begin the process of shaping the Treaty on Basic Relations, Japan and South Korea declared every accord previously signed between the nations to be “null and void.” Drafted in three languages—-Japanese, Korean and English—-negotiations leading to this treaty were so arduous, it took 14 years to bring the document to the signing table on June 22, 1965.

Students of Korean history continue to debate the merits of this accord to this day. Yoo Euy-sang, Northeast Asian History Foundation Ambassador-at-large, became so fascinated with the treaty, he authored a book about it in 2016, calling it a puzzle and insisting that the Treaty on Basic Relations “should be re-estimated,” despite the passage of 53 years.

Korean generals during Japanese colonization

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The story of how Koreans survived while Japanese ruled over them is very inspiring. They were able to continue to keep their culture, economy and military alive in spite of the Japanese colonization. Passing down historical moments from generation to generation was very important then as it is even now. A total of 7 generals and officers were appointed during this 35 year time frame, which is very significant story on how one can continue to persevere in spite of being pull down by another.

Korean Empire was short-lived from 1897 until Japan took over in 1910 until 1945. Emperor Gojong oversaw the initial Empire being modernized and then Sunjong took over until it was colonized by Japan in 1910. During this time frame, plenty of reforms, treaties, and other events took place. August 22, 1904, the Japan – Korea treaty was signed which required Korea to engage financial and diplomatic advisors to Japan. In September 1905, Russia and Japan signed a treaty to further establish Japan’s influence over Korea. Throughout Japan’s 35-year takeover, Korea managed to stand strong through its military efforts with rising generals and other officials who made their country great.

Crown Prince Yi Un was the first and possible the best Lieutenant General to serve Korea. After graduating from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy May 25, 1917, he became a Second Lieutenant December 25th and continue to rise through the ranks to later become the Lieutenant General in 1940. He was refused to come home in 1945 but in 1963 the Korean president at that time allowed him to return. He was too ill but sought treatment in Seoul, Korea. Seven years later he died at Nakseon Hall, a former residence of an Imperial family in Korea. He is buried at Hongreung at Namyangju near Seoul.

 

Another Korean Prince was brought to Japan in 1918 and later entered the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. Yi Geon was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in 1930, promoted to Lieutenant in 1932 and later became a captain in 1936. He ended his military career with a rank of Colonel in 1945 at the end of the World War II. Like Yi Un, Yi Geon was not allowed back into Korea. After losing his status by the SCAP in 1947, he became a naturalized citizen of Japan in 1950.

Although Japan did not draft Koreans into their Army until 1944, they were still able to enlist and serve under Japanese governance. A huge increase of participants wanting to serve Korean rose greatly. In 1938 there were 2,946 applications but only 406 were accepted. But in 1943, 303,294 applied but 6,300 were accepted to serve in the army. The first 10 Chiefs of Army of Staff of Korea graduated from Imperial Japanese Army Academy and none from the Korean Liberation Army. Korean draftees either served in the military or as a laborer to prepare for war at various sites.

After Korea became independent again, they were able to recover via economic growth and agriculture, along with new generations being born to bring hope to the country. In spite of enduring assassinations, persecutions, racism and all around discrimination, this amazing country stood strong in what they believed in. The stories they will tell through historical archives will last forever. The world would know what happened in the 35-year colonization from Japan but they would also know the strength and courage it took to be redeemed. What we see now is a long way from what occurred during the Empire of Korea. They must remain strong because they should be acknowledged.

Christianity in Korea during Japanese colonization

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Today about 30% of the population in South Korea identify as Christian. This is substantially higher than many other Asian countries. Why did the Korean people take such a likening to the religion? The reasons can be found when looking at the influences of the country over the course of the last 100 years. Japans colonization, the Korean War, and western presence would culminate into the perfect environment for the religion to grow and expand.

American missionaries first arrived in Korea in the 1880s. Compared to other Asian countries, it was very well received. Korea would become a colony of Japan in 1910 and in 1914 it was estimated that there were approximately 150,000 Christians in Korea. During this time Japan did not have strict rules concerning Christianity which would change around World War 2. Christian missionaries were allowed to continue their work in Korea freely.

Prior to the arrival of Christianity Korea had its own practices. Korean Shamanism and Buddhism were common practice in the country until the arrival of Japan. When Japan colonized Korea, they outlawed Korean Shamanism and took over the Buddhist practices to enforce a pro-Japan agenda. This caused many people to gravitate towards Christianity upon its arrival as they were allowed to worship without the influence of propaganda. Christianity quickly became a rallying point to defy Japanese rule over their country. Many felt as though it was a way to rebel. In addition, it became part of a nationalist movement since it was un-influenced by the Japanese.

Another factor the emboldened the presence of Christianity was the Korean War in the early 1950’s. North and South Korean were clashing and South Korea was not as strong as it is today. The United States stepped in to provide support to the government and people of South Korea in an effort to preserve democracy. Because this was the first real western presence felt by the Korean people it garnered a lot of respect for the United States. They were there to assist people in need not to push an agenda they thought the country should adopt. Because of this respect, Christianity gained even more traction and was viewed in a more positive light than just a way to rebel.

Korean culture started to associate Christianity with the middle-class, intellectual superiority, and modernizers. After the release of Japan’s hold on the country and the end of the Korean war South Korea was formed. The country had a desire to modernize and the best example of this would be their allies in the recent war, the United States. These cultural association as well as an attempt to emulate the success the U.S. had was just another reason Christianity gained such popularity in Korea.

There was no one factor that gave Christianity such a strong presence in Korea but rather a perfect storm of multiple factors. Had the country never been colonized or if Japan had outlawed Christianity sooner it is possible one would see similar results as China or Japan.

Emperor Showa

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The 124th Emperor of Japan, Emperor Hirohito reigned from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. Born Michinomiya Hirohito on April 29, 1901, Emperor Hirohito was only 15 years old when he was crowned a prince. He was the first crown prince to travel abroad to study in Europe. When he returned to Japan in 1921, Crown Prince Hirohito was named regent when his father, Emperor Taisho, became chronically ill in 1921. He then became the acting ruler of Japan because his father’s health was failing.

 

As regent, Crown Prince Hirohito automatically became the new emperor upon his father’s death. Emperor Hirohito was his official name while serving as emperor of Japan. As with tradition, Emperor Hirohito was renamed after his death. The name Emperor Showa was given because it was the name of the era of Emperor Hirohito’s reign. Showa was a name Emperor Hirohito had chosen for the time he reigned which can be roughly translated to mean “enlightened harmony”.

 

Emperor Showa married Princess Nagako in January 26, 1924. Princess Nagako was a distant cousin of Emperor Showa which was the tradition. They had seven children together, two boys and five girls. Their oldest son, Akihito, was eventually crowned a prince. Later, Crown Prince Akihiot broke a 1,500 year tradition of marrying within the family by marrying a commoner.

 

Emperor Hirohito, or Emperor Showa, ruled Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War which led into World War 2 (WW2). He was considered a controversial leader during this time period. Japan was already considered one of the great powers when Emperor Showa, started his reign. It was one of only four permanent members of the League of Nations and was recognized as the ninth largest economy in the world. Following WWII, many leaders were prosecuted for war crimes. Emperor Showa was not prosecuted and his involvement remains controversial still today.

 

Under his reign, Emperor Showa became the commander-in-chief of the Japanese armed forces. He was also considered the highest spiritual authority as emperor. Instead of being charged with war crimes, MacArthur made a deal with Emperor Showa to implement a new Japanese constitution. This agreement also required the denouncement of the practice of imperial divinity.

 

Following the end of WWII, the United States continued to occupy Japan until 1952. During this occupation, the United States worked to transform Japan so that the sovereignty would lay with the people through a constitutional monarchy instead of the emperor. When the American occupation withdrew, Japan experienced a rapid economic growth period which Emperor Showa reigned over. The 64 year reign of Emperor Showa was the longest imperial reign in the history of Japan.

 

On January 7, 1989, Emperor Showa died of cancer of the small intestine at the Aoyama Palace in Tokyo. His funeral was an international event attended by such leaders as the President of the United States George H. W. Bush and the French President Francois Mitterrand. He was buried in the Imperial Mausoleum in Hachioji. He was succeeded by his son Akihito. Emperor Showa had remained an active figure in Japan up until his death.

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